GDC-11 - GRAPHICS DISPLAY CONTROLLER __________________________________________ A UNIVERSAL AND FAST GRAPHICS MODULE FOR DEC(r) Q-BUS The GDC-11 board is a highly integrated peripheral component designed for both black-and-white and color graphics. The systematical architecture of GDC-11 allows configuration of one, two, four or eight bit per pixel. It can be enhanced by adding an analog board. The basic configuration is very compact: it consists of a dual-slot Q-bus module directly connected to a monochrome or color monitor. The optional analog board is needed only if you would like to display gray values or more than eight colors. High performance and great functionality of GDC-11 satisfy the application challenges even in the laboratory areas: data acquisition, processing and displaying is now easily done by your PDP(r)-11 computer. The GDC-11 board is fully DEC(r) Q-bus compatible. Containing 256K bytes of graphics memory on board, GDC-11 requires only one slot in your backplane and is connected via coax cable to a standard monitor. GDC-11 is used especially in those application areas, where high standards of resolution and performance are required, e.g. CAD/CAM and digital signal processing. The heart of GDC-11 is the NEC μPD7220A processor. It generates the required video signals and modifies the graphics memory when executing drawing operations. After receiving some drawing parameters from the CPU, it performs the required calculations for the drawing process, thus acting as an intelligent coprocessor and freeing the CPU from number crunching. GDC-11 defines four registers in the I/O-page of the PDP(r)-11 to communicate with the CPU: control/status, parameter/data, zoom/color and DMA-data. The following example demonstrates the high performance of GDC-11: to connect any two points by a line, the CPU has to send the coordinates of the starting point and four other parameters to GDC-11, which are computed from the differences of the coordinates of the two points. Provided a PDP(r)-11/23, a line length of 300 pixels results in a drawing time of 1.7 milli seconds, flicker free and parallel to the CPU activities. This test was programmed entirely using the high-level language Modula-2. The Modula-2 statements you would use to set the cursor to (x1,y1) and draw a line to (x2,y2) are: Px := x1; Py := y1; draw(x2,y2). With a black-and-white GDC-11 module you can address x-coordinates between 0 and 2047 and y-coordinates between 0 and 1023. With a color GDC-11 version, the bit-map size is 0..1023 for x and 0..512 for y. To draw a line in color c, where c ranges from 0..15 (4 bit/pixel) or 0..255 (8 bit/pixel) you specify the drawing color using the statement WriteColor(c). With the optional analog board GDC-11/L you can define and change the color representation by modifying the color lookup-table. Besides the GDC-11 versions for standard monitors: GDC-11/1, GDC-11/4 and GDC-11/8, there are three configurations for high resolution monitors: GDC-11/1HR, GDC-11/4HR and GDC-11/8XC for 1, 4 and 8 bit per pixel. HR means h igh r esolution, XC means e x tended c olor. For every system is excellent software available: a modular graphics library GDC-11/S ( s oftware) for the programmer and a graphics editor called SILcad. SILcad is a computer aided drafting program well suited for physicians and engineers. Constructional and electronical plans can easily be drawn by using a mouse. The monochrome GDC-11/1HR is ideal for displaying text, data and technical drawings on a 17 Inch monitor using portrait format. An optimal picture is gained from using black patterns on white background combined with a special illuminant. The hcm44 monitor series from AEG-Telefunken provides A-4 display format with short persistance, bright, flicker and glare free. Of course, you can use monitors from other manufacturers. The graphics memory is organized as 2048 x 1024 pixels with a display resolution of 832 x 1024 pixels, video signal bandwidth (= pixel rate) 70 MHz, horizontal frequency 64 KHz, vertical frequency 55 Hz, non interlaced. When using a small character set with a 8 x 12 matrix, you can display 85 lines, each containing 104 characters. The eight-color version GDC-11/4HR suits CAD applications, data display and business graphics. Graphics memory organization is 1024 x 512, display resolution is 640 x 512 pixels in 1/50 second using an 14 Inch monitor with 32 KHz horizontal frequency and 24 MHz pixel rate. Only three out of the four bits are used for the RGB output. The fourth bit can be used to set its corresponding pixel to white, independant of the other bits. Maximum power is gained from the GDC-11/8XC color system. Eight bit per pixel, 512K bytes graphics memory and two graphics processors μPD7220A lead to the ultimate in computer graphics - you can fulfill highest standards in material testing and medical image processing. As with the GDC-11/4HR you get a 640 x 512 pixel display resolution, but now having 256 colors or gray values available for display. The GDC-11/8XC configuration consists of two GDC-11/4HR and one analog board, together three dual Q-bus boards. The boards are connected via a 24 wire ribbon cable, the so-called GDC-bus . The two GDC-11/4HR operate in master-slave mode. Having 256 values per channel (three channels: RGB), you can choose 256 colors out of a range of 2**24 possibilities. The analog board GDC-11/L for the GDC-11/8 is a Q-bus module which has a GDC-bus interface. It communicates via a control/status register and three data registers. GDC-11/L serves two functional requirements: (1) transformation of the digital pixel information into an analog output signal. This transformation is accomplished by means of a (via I/O page) loadable color map (= color lookup table). The digital information stored for each pixel is 8 bit, this gives 256 different colors for each pixel. Since a color monitor has only three different analog inputs, the color map transforms the value of a pixel to one intensity value for each of the three signal outputs, again with 8 bit resolution. The analog output is generated by three fast monolithic ECL- digital/analog converters. This process runs at the speed of the pixel rate, i.e. 24 MHz. The colors are defined by loading the color map with 256 out of 2**24 possible colors. Special feature: you can use two vertical separated display areas with a variable number of lines, each having 256 colors, i.e. you can display 512 different colors at any one time in two separated areas. This might be useful in displaying the same picture twice: one picture using gray values, the other using pseudo colors. The full capacity of the color map is 3*1024 bytes, providing 4 different tables with 256 elements per display area and channel. Two tables define the color or gray level set currently displayed for each area. Changing a bit of the control/status register switches to the second color set. (2) The second function is to split up the 8 bit value of one pixel information into two 4 bit pixel values for the internal format of the master/slave GDC-11 configuration. This transformation is done using two 16 bit data merge registers with the purpose of speeding up the picture loading process. FEATURES: o Raster-scan graphics system for the DEC(r) Q-bus o Color graphics, gray levels or black-and-white o Basic system built upon a dual slot card o Graphics memory: 256K bytes (32 * 64K bit dynamic RAM) o GDC-11/type, graphics memory configurations and monitor type : GDC-11/1 : 1 bit/pixel * 2048 * 1024 pixels (dual-slot board) for standard 15 KHz b/w monitor GDC-11/1HR : 1 bit/pixel * 2048 * 1024 pixels (dual-slot board) for 64 KHz b/w monitor GDC-11/4 : 4 bit/pixel * 1024 * 512 pixels (dual-slot board) for 15 KHz RGB color monitor GDC-11/4HR : 4 bit/pixel * 1024 * 512 pixels (dual-slot board) for 32 KHz RGB color monitor GDC-11/8 : 8 bit/pixel * 512 * 512 pixels (2 dual-slot boards incl. GDC-11/L, image processing only) for 15 KHz b/w monitor (256 gray values) or 15 KHz RGB color monitor GDC-11/8XC : 8 bit/pixel * 1024 * 512 pixels (3 dual-slot boards incl. GDC-11/L) for 32 KHz RGB color monitor o Easy system integration and programming: there is no Q-bus DMA and no interrupts, due to the powerful graphics processor with its local buffer- and graphics memory. This means: (1) no problem for GDC-11 to run with every Q-bus (16, 18 or 22 bit) and (2) simple device drivers for the operating systems o No color layer splitting, i.e. no bit plane architecture. The graphics memory is not mapped into the Q-Bus's address space, i.e. no dual port memory. Special feature : the mask register architecture allowes quick drawing using all colors together, i.e. (1) no speed slow down when using color instead of black-and-white graphics and (2) high software portability; application programs designed to run on a black-and-white graphic system also run on a color system without modification. o Two independant display areas, vertical length freely programmable: 0 <= v1 <= height; v2 := height - v1; height = 1024-1(b/w) or 512-1(color). o Host CPU is unburdened; parallel processing of CPU and GDC-11 o Parallel processing of two GDC-11/4 in master/slave mode with GDC-11/8XC o Bidirectional FIFO for commands, parameters, and data. FIFO capacity 16 bytes o Flicker free writing and reading of the graphics memory using WDAT, DMAW and RDAT, DMAR commands o GDC-DMA-speed, for example loading of the display memory of GDC-11/8XC using a 15 MHz LSI-11/73 with the 7220A-WDAT-command in non-flash mode programmed entirely in Modula-2 (without MACRO (assembly) tuning) lasts 5 seconds o Font software defineable (no on-board ROM), i.e. no restrictions on font selection. Variable character height and width for proportional and/or fixed spacing fonts. Enlargement of fonts by writing zoom factor (1 to 16). o On-board graphics processor NEC μPD7220A, up to 70 MHz pixel frequency o Video monitor parameter software loadable (front-porch, back-porch und sync-pulse) o Generates vectors (up to 1.5 mega pixel/sec), rectangles and arcs o Drawing process' operating modes: set, replace, complement or erase pixel (Paint Mode) o Hardware display zoom: factor 1 to 16 o 8 directions and writing zoom factor 1 to 16 for graphic patterns o Drawing with 45 Grad increment, with or without slanting o Area filling with any 8*8 pattern o Panning: displaying one or two windows. Variable starting line and horizontal offset within the whole graphics memory o Non-interlaced/interlaced-mode: switched by software INTERFACES: o Video output: BAS-signal, RGB and/or TTL-signals, H/V-sync-signals separately (Lemo- connectors) o Video norm: programmable video raster parameters and monitor format (number of lines: active lines, pixels per line: active words) o Optional external synchronisation o Q-Bus: load 2 A typ. at +5V (+/- 5%) o GDC-11/S*: GDC-11 SOFTWARE o Sophisticated utilities: mouse controlled graphics editor SILcad and multi- file/multi- window text editor EDIT86, as well as modular graphics libraries for Modula-2 and other languages. o SILcad graphics editor for the interactive design and manipulation of line drawings using a 3-buttons mouse (Souris P-4). Features : Drawing, moving, copying, (color dependant) selection, reducing, enlarging, mirroring, changing of color, character set and grid, rubber band moving, saving and retrieving of graphical objects. Graphical objects are horizontal and vertical lines of various width, as well as vectors, circles, macros, texts consisting of different fonts and heights. The drawing plane consists of 2048 lines, each having 1664 pixels on GDC-11/1HR. You can hardcopy to matrix-, ink-jet-, laser- printer or plotter. See SILcad V5.6 product description. SILcad is the PDP-11/GDC-11 portation of Lilith's graphics editor SIL V5 with several extensions. The author of the original version is Niklaus Wirth from Institut für Informatik at ETH-Zürich. o EDIT86 text editor. Features : multiple documents: eight text files can be edited at the same time, multiple windows (views) per document at the same time, open/close window or document, change the size of a window, (currently) up to 127 blocks per file, mouse/pull-down menu controlled cursor/caret position and command selection, full replay after recovering from power-, hardware-, disk-, software- failure, interactive replay control stop- continue- terminate, text selection, deleting, copying and moving with mouse, unlimited save/cut/paste buffer, moving/copying text from one window/document to another, relative and absolute positioning: flipping and scrolling, ASCII character set 8*12 fixed-width font & extended character set (umlaute), auto- indentation, programmable user profile and guidance, learn mode/execute macro, supports 8-bit control characters. Besides a title line and two lines for the dialog window there are 60 lines à 100 characters (GDC-11/1HR portrait A-4 format) or 30 lines à 80 characters (GDC-11/4HR landscape format). EDIT86 is the PDP-11/GDC-11 portation of Lilith's Editor VC1.2 developed at ETH-Zürich. The authors of the original version are Jürg Gutknecht, Christian Vetterli, Werner Winiger and Niklaus Wirth from Institut für Informatik at ETH-Zürich. o For Modula-2 programmers: the modular graphics library includes the modules Cursor Mouse, Menu, Windows, Text Windows, Graphic Windows as defined in the appendix of N. Wirth's book, "Programming in Modula-2", Springer- Verlag, Heidelberg - New York, 1985 (3rd Edition). o Extensions : proportional spacing, colors (8 or 256), WritingZoom- and Panning-feature. You also get the following procedures: DefineArea, Zoom, Pattern, Mask, WriteColor, DisplayColor, LoadColor Map, MergeData, ReadData, WriteData, as well as MapChar for the extended ASCII character set. o Fonts : any pattern within a 16*16 matrix. Currently seven different fonts are available. o Writing of single characters to various positions, for example in Modula-2: Px:=x; Py:=y; Write(ch), prints character ch at position (x,y). Every character of a font has its individual character width. Fonts are loaded dynamically. You can freely combine different fonts and sizes at any one time. Change the actual font? No problem in Modula-2: Load Font ('DK small GDC', ok). Each font file, e.g. DK:SMALL.GDC, consists of 9 blocks and defines an extended ASCII character set (ECS) containing 128 characters. o GM.SYS graphics memory device handler (read/write, file structured, 512 blocks, bootable) for RT-11 o For PASCAL/FORTRAN/MACRO programmers: the subroutine package GDCLIB.MAC (commented sources provided) contains the following functions: MOVE (X,Y), DRAW (X,Y), LINE TYPE (pattern), PAINT COLOR (color), DISPCOLOR (color), ERASE (color), PIXEL MODE (mode), ERAMODE (mode), PLOTEND (), RECT DRAW (dx,dy,dir), CIRCLE DRAW (radius), AREA FILL (dx, dy, dir), PRAM (gchr), WRZOOM (factor), PITCH (xlength), PAN (x,Y), ZOOM (factor). Pattern is a 16 bit pattern for the drawing of vectors, circles and so on; mode is one out of the paint modes (add, erase, replace, invert). Also included: video parameter initialisation program GDCINI.FOR to be executed at system startup and application example GDCTST.FOR for the GDCLIB. o Software is distributed on 8" floppy disk RX01/RX02 format, RT-11 file structured. RX50 on request. GDC-11 HIGH LIGHTS (All GDC products made in West Germany): Hardware: Exclusively manufactured using high quality components, DEC(r) LSI-bus specification with interface chip-kit from DEC(r), gilded bus contacts, fast Schottky building parts, 32 bit shift register output, up to 70 MHz pixelrate with high resolution version, high integration using 3 PALs (programmable array logic), fast data transfer with GDC-DMA mode. GDC-11 can act as a (bootable) RAM disk with GM.SYS under RT-11. You have 512 blocks (256K bytes) of virtual graphics memory per GDC-11 available, also when using processors without MMU, for example LSI-11/2. The reason is the graphics memory being not accessed directly via Q-bus, but via I/O page and manipulated by the graphics processor μPD7220A. We guarantee second source for all building parts. The cards have burn-in, the circuit scheme is available on confidential base. Software: State of the art software technology, modular design, programming language Modula-2, FORTRAN or MACRO, less than 4K bytes for XY graphics library, efficient and easy to program, storing drawing command sequences or drawings on any mass storage device, Window Handler for text and graphics, cursor positioning and pull-down menu selection by mouse. The system and application software runs on all types of the GDC-11 series without modification. Example: The illustration on "GDC-11 Configurations" on next page was drawn on a PDP-11 under RT-11 using a three-buttons mouse, a GDC-11/1HR and SILcad software. The drawing requires 12 blocks (6K bytes) of mass storage. It consists of 560 line- and text- elements (including a scaled copy of itself in the 17 Inch monitor). To rebuild (repaint) the whole drawing an LSI-11/23 CPU needs 5.5 seconds. The hardcopy raster is 640 * 864 on an A-4 sheet (8"*12") using a low-cost matrix printer Speedy 100-80. ________________________________________________________________________________ (R) DEC, PDP, VAX are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation (C) (1983) by Günter Dotzel. Specification, update, layout, printing: 12/1985, ModulaWare, Erlangen.