RASTER SCAN SYSTEM

                           GRAPHIC CONTROLLER GDC-11 

                             LSI-Bus (DEC(r) Q-Bus)

                              Color or Monochrome

                               Made in W. Germany

                                    Sep 1984

Update: Gunter Dotzel, Erlangen, Mar-1983, Oct-1983, Jan-1984, Sep-1984, Oct-1984







                     VI._GDC-11/L Color Lookup Table


    GDC-11 Raster Graphic: Allgemeine Hardware Information

    SCHWARZ/WEISS 17" MONITOR GDC-11/MHCM44 für GDC-11/1HR: Made in W. Germany

    SCHWARZ/WEISS 15" MONITOR GDC-11/Mh2r für GDC-11/1HR: Made in W. Germany


The GDC-11 is an intelligent Q-Bus Device for high
performance raster-scan computer graphics with on-board
256 KByte graphic refresh memory. With the capabilities of
zooming and panning this graphic controller is ideal for
advanced computer graphic applications.

Nearly every monitor type may be connected to the
GDC-11. The GDC-11 generates all necessary
synchronisation signals for a standard b/w or color monitor.
The GDC-11 may also be programmed to work as
a slave device with an other GDC-11 as master or even
with a VT-100(r) in combination with a small adapter board.

The GDC-11 is designed for high resolution color or 
black und white monitors with or without interlace mode.

No character ROM limits the character capabilities. The characters
are defined within a 16 * 16 pixel field with a character set
(font) generator utility. Different fonts could be used
with fixed or proportional character width.

Eight different directions are available for graphic character drawing.
A writing zoom-factor from 1 to 16 could be selected. 
Characters can also be slanted at drawing,
independently of the zoom-factor and direction.

The panning feature: The display window on the monitor screen is defined by an
area and zoom specification. The size of the displayed window
may vary with the monitor type and is normally smaller than the
virtual (addressable) graphics memory. 

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

The information contained in this manual is disclosed in confidence
and may not be duplicated in full or in part by any
person without prior written approval of ModulaWare. Its
sole purpose is to provide the user with adequately detailed 
documentation to efficiently install, operate, maintain, and order
spare parts for the device supplied. The use of
this document for any other purpose is specifically prohibited.

(c) 1984 by Dotzel, ModulaWare, Erlangen.


A preliminary version of this document has been edited by Folkert Kassen († 2016)
(Büro für Informationstechnologie), who designed the GDC-11 Hardware in 1982. 
The sections Overview (I.), Q-Bus Interface Description (IV.), Options (V.), 
and GDC-11/L Color Lookup Table (VI.) have been completed and updated by ModulaWare. 


GDC-11 is a trademark of Kassen, Inc. (West Germany)


o Raster-Scan-Graphic for the DEC(r) Q-Bus 

o Graphic memory: 256 Kbyte ( 32 * 64 KBit dyn. RAM )

o Module Size: dual height card, 5.2" * 8.9"

o Color selectable (at factory):

  1 Bit/Pixel  * 2048 * 1024 pixels (dual slot board)

  2 Bit/Pixel  * 1024 * 1024 pixels (dual slot board)

  4 Bit/Pixel  * 512  * 1024 pixels (dual slot board)

  8 Bit/Pixel  * 508  * 512 pixels (dual slot board)

  4 Bit/Pixel  * 512  * 1024 pixels (2 dual slot boards including lookup-table)

  8 Bit/Pixel  * 512  * 1024 pixels (3 dual slot boards including lookup-table)

o 2 independent display areas vertical length max. 2048 lines per frame

o Programmable interlace mode

o Hardware Zoom

o Independent panning for each display area

o 8 different directions for character drawing and area filling

o Character slanting at drawing selectable

o Area filling with 8 * 8 pixel symbols

o BAS Video Signal output and/or TTL-Signals

o External synchronisation with clock and sync signals

o Power consumption: 2.0 A typ. @ +5 Volt

o Writing time at sync time selectable - no flicker at drawing

o FIFO for commands and parameter

o Programmable video raster parameters & actual display format on the monitor

o Figure drawing of lines, arcs/circles, rectangles and graphic charaters in 
  900 ns per pixel

o No color planes architecture -- fast drawing of all colors at the same time

o Access of Graphic memory at nearly DMA speed



    First to do is the initalization of the GDC Controller before
    any drawing to adapt the GDC to the appropiate Monitor and
    the selected hardware on the board.

        RESET   command         code = 0

    This command needs up to 8 bytes of parameters to setup the
    GDC for the right operation. An example is given in chapter 6.
    The parameters are

        Mode    parameter       value   0 0 0 F I 1 1 I
        AW      parameter       value   x x x x x x x 0
        HS+VS   parameter       value   v v v h h h h h
        HFB+VS  parameter       value   h h h h h h v v
        HBP     parameter       value   0 0 x x x x x x
        VFP     parameter       value   0 0 x x x x x x
        AL      parameter       value   a a a a a a a a
        AL+VBP  parameter       value   v v v v v v a a

    Description the abbreviations:

        F       = 0 ->  Drawing during active display time and retace blanking
                = 1 ->  Drawing only during retrace blanking (no flicker)
        I       = 0 ->  Non Interlace
                = 1 ->  Interlace
        AW      =       Active display words per line. Must be an even number with bit 0 = 0
        HS      =       Horizontal sync width in words
        VS      =       Vertical sync width in lines with low and high bits in 
                        different parameter bytes
        HFP     =       Horizontal front porch width in words
        HBP     =       Horizontal back porch width in words
        VFP     =       Vertical front porch width in lines
        VBP     =       Vertical back porch width in lines
        AL      =       Active display lines per video field low and high bits
        x       = bits used for value
        v,h,a   = to distinguish the bits of the byte for the two different parameter
        0       = this bit should be reset
        1       = this bit should be set

        VSYNC   command         code    0110111V

                V = 0 -> Slave mode does not generate a vsync signal
                  = 1 -> Master mode (used if only one board is active)

        CCHAR   command         code    01001011

                parameter       value   00000000
                parameter       value   11000000
                parameter       value   00000000

This command with these 3 parameters must be used 
for proper operation of the GDC controller.

        PITCH   command         code    01000111

                parameter       value   xxxxxxxx

The value of the parameter sets up the number of words
addressed in the display memory in the horizontal 
direction. For the GDC-11/1 it may be the vertical 

        START   command         code    01101011

                Start the Display and end the idle mode of the GDC.


        MASK    command         code    01001010

        mlow    parameter       value   xxxxxxxx
        mhigh   parameter       value   xxxxxxxx

        The MASK command loads the mask register (internal) with the
        two parameter values. Any CURS command modifies these values
        and of course every drawing command. 

        CURS    command         code    01001001

        eadl    parameter       value   xxxxxxxx
        eadm    parameter       value   xxxxxxxx
        eadh    parameter       value   dddd00ee

        This command updates the internal cursor register. The third
        parameter selects with the dad field (d) the dot address 
        in one graphic word (16 bits), the other bits form the 
        physical address of the graphic memory.

       CURD    command         code    11100000

        eadl    data            value   xxxxxxxx
        eadm    data            value   xxxxxxxx
        eadh    data            value   000000zx
        dadl    data            value   xxxxxxxx
        dadh    data            value   xxxxxxxx

        The physical address of the internal cursor is returned and
        the dot address within a word is decoded as 1 of 16. Only
        one bit in the dadl and dadh word is set. Bit 0 of dadl 
        describs the left most bit of the word on the monitor.

        GCHRD   command         code    01101000

        This command starts the drawing of the graphic character. 
        The previous command must be the FIGS with the 
        appropriate parameters.

        FIGD    command         code    01101100

        FIGD starts the drawing of the selected line, arc etc. The
        previous command must be the FIGS to select the function.

        FIGS    command         code    01001100        abv.

        P1      parameter       code    sraglddd        mode
        P2      parameter       code    xxxxxxxx        DC low
        P3      parameter       code    00xxxxxx        DC high
        P4      parameter       code    xxxxxxxx        D low
        P5      parameter       code    00xxxxxx        D high
        P6      parameter       code    xxxxxxxx        D2 low
        P7      parameter       code    00xxxxxx        D2 high
        P8      parameter       code    xxxxxxxx        D1 low
        P9      parameter       code    00xxxxxx        D1 high
        P10     parameter       code    xxxxxxxx        DM low
        P11     parameter       code    00xxxxxx        DM high

        Valid figure type select combination: (description of the
        mode byte)

        s  r  a  g  l           operation

        0  0  0  0  0           Character Display mode drawing and individual dot drawing
        0  0  0  0  1           line drawing
        0  0  0  1  0           graphic character drawing and area filling with 
                                graphic character pattern
        0  0  1  0  0           Arc and Circle drawing
        0  1  0  0  0           Rectangle drawing
        1  0  0  1  0           slanted graphic character drawing and slanted area filling

        Field   code    function

        ddd     0       direction  -- S         S = South
        ddd     1       direction  -- SE        N = North
        ddd     2       direction  -- E         E = East
        ddd     3       direction  -- NE        W = West
        ddd     4       direction  -- N
        ddd     5       direction  -- NW
        ddd     6       direction  -- W
        ddd     7       direction  -- SW

        The calculation of the various parameters are shown in the
        following table:

        Function        DC      D       D2      D1      DM

        Initial value   0       8       8       -1      -1
        Line            dx      X       Y       Z       -
        Circle          RW      r-1     2(r-1)  -1      0
        Arc             RW      r-1     2(r-1)  -1      r*sin t **
        Rectangle       3       A       B       -1      A
        Character       7       -       -       -       -
        Area Fill       B       A       -       -       -

        dx      =       delta x
        X       =       2*Abs(delta y)-Abs(delta x)
        Y       =       2*Abs(delta y)-2*Abs(delta x)
        Z       =       2*Abs(delta y)
        RW      =       r/sqr(2) round up
        A       =       # of pixels in the initial direction -1
        B       =       # of pixels at the right angle to A
        DC      =       drawing count
        DM      =       dots masked count
        r       =       radius of the curve in pixels
        t       =       the angle subtended from the octant axis to the arc
        **      =       round down to next lower integer

       WDAT    command         code    001tt0mm

        This command sets up the pixel modification kind in the
        graphic memory.

        Field   code    function
        tt      00      Word transfer, first low then high byte
        tt      01      invalid
        tt      10      byte transfer, low byte only
        tt      11      byte transfer, high byte only

        mm      00      replace with pattern
        mm      01      complement pixel in graphic memory
        mm      10      reset pixel to zero 
        mm      11      set pixel to one

        No parameter should follow this command.

       PRAM    command         code    0111ssss

        The loading of the character matrix is done with this
        command. ssss is the starting address of the parameter
        RAM (internal). The sixteen byte registers have the
        following meanings:

        The first 8 byte describe the two display areas.

        RA0     parameter       value   xxxxxxxx
        RA1     parameter       value   xxxxxxxx
        RA2     parameter       value   llll00xx
        RA3     parameter       value   w0llllll

        RA4 - RA7 have the same attributes as the register RA0 - RA3
        for the second area.

        RA0 - RA2 gives the starting address in the graphic memory
        The value lll is the length of that area.
        The bit w must be set if 32 Bit output is selected on the
        Board (factory selection).

        RA8 - RA15 is the matrix for the 8 * 8 pixel character for
        drawing or area filling. The LSB of RA8 is the first pixel
        on the screen (i.e. the upper left corner).

        If line, arc or rectangle drawing is selected, the line type
        must previously written into the parameter RAM RA8 and RA9
        which forms an 16 bit pattern register.


The GDC-11 operates on any LSI-Bus (16, 18, 22-Bit Q-Bus). The address
notation used here is in 18 Bit octal addresses.
The I/O-page is addressed via BBS7 signal, and the GDC-11
is addressed if the BBS7 signal is set (done by CPU) and e.g. for
the GDC-11/1, the address 774000 (on LSI-11/23) is selected.
This is equivalent to 174000 (on LSI-11/2) or 17774000 (on LSI-11/73),
when used with ODT.

Default base addresses:
      GDC-11/1: 774000
      GDC-11/2: 774240
      GDC-11/4: 774200
      GDC-11/8: 774220

Accessing the I/O-page by a program running
under an unmapped operating system such as the RT-11 SJ monitor is easy:

        ; in MACRO (assembler)
        MOV data,@174000        ; moves a parameter data word into GDC-11 FiFo

        (* in Modula-2 *)
        VAR data: INTEGER;
          CSR [ 174000B ]: INTEGER;
          CSR := data; (* moves variable data into GDC-11 FiFo *)

Accessing the I/O-page by a program running
under a mapped operating system such as the RT-11 XM monitor or Share-11
or RSX-11M requires a device handler for GDC-11 (see GDC-11/*.SYS options)

Four words are defined in the I/O-page for the GDC-11/x. The addresses
referred to in this description are for the GDC-11/1 base address.
The first register at the base address
is the control/status register. With an offset
of two the register 2 is addressed. The hardware zoom-register is
the next one and the last is used for DMA-Data transfer. The DMA-Data
register can be examined with ODT, only if the DMA transfer mode has been
set up properly (see below).

The GDC-11 registers have different functions at reading and writing. The
next table gives the different actions.

        Register        Read                    Write             Address

            1           Status Reg.        Parameter into FiFo    774000
            2           FiFo read          Command into FiFo      774002
            3           Hardware Status    Zoomregister           774004
            4           DMA-Read-Data      DMA-Write-Data         774006

IV.1_Status_Register (reading from 774000)

The individual bits of this register have the following meanings:

        Bit 8   :       DMA execute
        Bit 7   :       Light Pen Detect        ( currently not used )
        Bit 6   :       Horizontal Blank Active
        Bit 5   :       Vertical Sync Active
        Bit 4   :       DMA Execute
        Bit 3   :       Drawing in Progress
        Bit 2   :       FiFo Empty      
        Bit 1   :       FiFo Full
        Bit 0   :       Data Ready for reading from Register 2

IV.2_Command_Register (writing to 774002)

Writing into register 2 has the following meaning,
depending on the state of the hardware FiFo, which has a capacity of 16 bytes.
Eight bits of this register are used to specify a command. 
Only word addressing should be done by software (e.g. MOV #cmd, @774002).

States of the hardware FiFo for commands (774002) and parameters (774000):

FiFo empty: execute or initiate a command with parameters to follow

FiFo not full: push command/parameter into FiFo

FiFo full: command/parameter is lost

IV.3_Parameter_Register (writing to 774000)

Most commands need one or more parameters. They should be written
into this register (774000). The data is also written
into the FiFo and the full flag must not be active at
writing or the parameter data byte
is lost. Issuing a new command via the command register
terminates a parameter sequence.

IV.4_Data_Register (reading from 774002)

Some commands return several bytes after execution. The direction
of the FiFo turns around for output and bit 0 (data ready)
of the status register
is set, if the data is valid. No other command must be send to 
the controller between the previous data requesting command and the
fetching process, because the direction of the FiFo has changed 
and no further
data can be fetched from the data register until the next data requesting
command has been issued. For more information see
RDAT command description.


This multi functional hardware register at 774004 controls the pixel clock 
on the screen, the zoom factor,  and
selects the writing color set and the displayed color set on the monitor
(on GDC-11 color board). The assignment of the bits

        Bit             GDC 11 Function                 GDC 11/1 Function

        0       :       Extra color select write        must be one
        1       :       Red color select write          must be one
        2       :       Green color selct write         must be one
        3       :       Blue color select write         must be one
        4       :       Extra color select display      Zoombit 0 without PAL
        5       :       Red color select display        Zoombit 1 without PAL
        6       :       Green color select display      not used
        7       :       Blue color select display       not used
        8       :       Zoombit 0
        9       :       Zoombit 1
        10      :       Zoombit 2
        11      :       Zoombit 3

The zoom value from bit 8 to bit 11 range from 0 TO 15 and specify
a zoom factor of 1 to 16. 

GDC-11/1HR (high resolution version) only:

 Zoombit 0 = 0 and Zoombit 1 = 0 means zoom factor 1

 Zoombit 0 = 1 and Zoombit 1 = 0 means zoom factor 2

 Zoombit 0 = 1 and Zoombit 1 = 1 means zoom factor 4

(By the way: On the 17" high res monitor a zoom factor
greater than 4 is not realized, since the height of
a single character with this zoom factor is about 15mm. Characters of this
size are still readable from a long distance)


This register allows reading and writing of the GDC-11 graphic refresh
memory byte by byte with nearly DMA speed. An arbitrary rectangle (area)
of the GDC-11's graphic memory
can be transfered from and to main memory via the DMA-Read/Write
register in the I/O-page. For the data transfer, one of four
modes can be selected: replace, complement, reset and set.
Fast copy area functions for bit-mapped applications can be realized.

A graphic memory handler GM.SYS is available for the GDC-11 under 
RT-11, Star-11 and Share-11. Since the memory capacity of all GDC-11
boards is 256K bytes, there are 512 blocks available (GM.SYS device size). 
The performance of GM.SYS is like DEC's virtual memory handler VM.SYS, but
there is no MMU required.

The data path is 8 bit wide and two transfers define a 16 bit pattern
in word transfer mode.
Use the DMA Read or Write Request to start the GDC-[Quasi]-DMA operation:

   DMAR command code: 101vw1mn    DMA Read Command

   DMAW command code: 001vw1mn    DMA Write Command

   Field   code     function:     Data Transfer Type

   vw      00       word transfer: low, then high data byte
   vw      10       low byte of the word
   vw      01       high byte of the word
   vw      10       invalid

   Field   code     function:     RMW Memory Logical Operation
   mn      00       Replace with Pattern
   mn      01       Complement
   mn      10       Reset to Zero
   mn      11       Set to One

Example for writing: After setting the cursor position (see cursor command),
loading the mask register (see mask command), setting up the
figure drawing parameters (see figure set command), the DMA
Write (word mode) operation could be started (PDP-11 MACRO notation
used here, assume GDC-11 base address Status = 174000):

        MOV #Buff,R0        ; set up data buffer address
        MOV #Count,R1       ; set up transfer word count
        MOV #44, @#Status+2 ; DMA write word command (mode=replace) to GDC-11
        MOV #Status+6,R2    ; keep DMA register address for speed up
DMAEXO: BIT #400,@#Status   ; wait for DMA execute bit
        BEQ DMAEXO
                            ; GDC-11 is now ready for transfer
OUT:    MOVB (R0)+,(R2)   ; low byte
        MOVB (R0)+,(R2)   ; high byte
        SOB  R1,OUT
Example for reading: Again
after setting the cursor position (see cursor command),
loading the mask register (see mask command), setting up the
figure drawing parameters (see figure set command), the DMA
Read (word mode) operation could be started (PDP-11 MACRO notation
used here, assume GDC-11 base address Status = 174000):

        MOV #Buff,R0        ; set up data buffer address
        MOV #Count,R1       ; set up transfer word count
        MOV #244,@#Status+2 ; DMA read word command (mode=replace) to GDC-11
        MOV #Status+6,R2    ; keep DMA register address for speed up
DMAEXI: BIT #400,@#Status   ; wait for DMA execute bit
        BEQ DMAEXI
                            ; GDC-11 is now ready for transfer
INP:    MOVB (R2),(R0)+   ; low byte
        MOVB (R2),(R0)+   ; high byte
        SOB  R1,INP

There are two optional modes for the transfer: the flash mode and the fast
mode. In the example above, the FAST & FLASH mode is assumed, where no
time-out can happen (i.e. no synchonization is required for data ready
or data accept, since the GDC-11 accepts or delivers data as fast
as the CPU can write or read data to or from the DMA-Data register)

The fast mode 
is selected by the FAST/NORMAL jumper on the GDC-11 board under
PAL12H6 (pin 1 to ground). This mode allows DMA transfers during
retrace blanking without time-out. The fast mode can only be selected if the
following condition is satified (depending on which CPU is used, and
which video parameters are loaded into the GDC at intialization):

 assume: H-Blanking = H-Sync + H-FrontPorch + H-BackPorch

 Time-Out (10μs [Q-Bus 11/23]) >= H-Blanking + 500 ns

 Time-Out (15μs [Q-Bus 11/73]) >= H-Blanking + 500 ns

 Time-Out (20μs [Q-Bus converter 11/44]) >= H-Blanking + 500 ns

The FLASH mode is software selectable (F bit in GDC-11 mode word, see
RESET and SYNC command) and
allows data transfers to be executed during active display time also.

If the flash mode is not selected (F bit = 1), drawing (modifying the refresh
memory) is done only during
retrace blanking. If there is a DMA-Data register access in this mode 
(no-flash) during active
display time, a time-out (trap to 4) will happen.
The transfer can be continued if the 
DMA-execute bit of the GDC-11 status register is set (Bit 8 = 1);
i.e. the .TRPSET request must be used to intercept the trap to 4.
The trap intercept routine polls the DMA-Execute bit and then the
instruction which caused the trap has to be re-executed. 

Note: using the auto-increment mode with Q-Bus CPU's, 
e.g. in the instruction
MOVB (R0)+,(R2),  the register R0 has been incremented before
the trap occurs (the register R0 is unchanged
in the case of a UNIBUS CPU, e.g. PDP-11/44). 
Hence the intercept routine has to decrement the
Register R0 before re-executing the instruction. Re-execution can
be done by decrementing the PC (R7) on the stack before issuing 
the RTI instruction.


Available GDC-11/options:

VT100/VT103 Raster Graphic:

GDC-11/1VH: VT-100/103 adapter board to connect the VT-100 with the 
GDC's 26-pin connector via a ribbon cable and using the VT-100 screen
in normal operation as ASCII video terminal and in parallel as
graphic display (1280 * 512 pixels). 

The adapter board is a very small logic board with an integrated 
connector for the DIP socket on the VT-100 logic board in the upper corner,
that is normally used by e. g. Retrographic(r) extension boards. The GDC-11 Adapter
and existing extensions boards could be used in parallel.
Since the GDC-11/1VH plugs directly in the Q-Bus, it is very much faster than
graphic systems programmed via serial line.
The adapter generates the sync. signals from the master VT-100
for the GDC-11, which is driven in slave mode.
The GDC-11 provides the video information and +5V for the adapter. 
No modifications are necessary on the VT-100. Interlace mode only.
The video signal of the GDC-11 is also available on the video
output connector of the VT-100. An additional BAS video monitor
can be used.

GDC-11/1VL: like VH, but (640 * 480 pixels). Interlace mode only.

GDC-11/L: Color mapping board (lookup table) for the two
areas (programmable via Q- Bus) with 3 high
speed DAC's to generate 256**3 colors (256 color intensities
per channel (R,G,B). 1024*8 Bit RAM, 2 (modes) * 2 (areas) * 256 colors. 
Dual board, connected via ribbon cable to GDC-11/8 or GDC-11/4.


GDC-11/S, GDC-11/SM, GDC-11/SW: 
Software Library Modules written in Modula-2, see N. Wirth,
Programming in Modula-2, Springer Verlag Heidelberg, 1982 (2nd ed. 1983). 
Combines the ergonomic mouse and raster graphic features with Modula-2 on a PDP-11.

Pull-down menu and window handler for text and graphics (needs GM.SYS).

GDC-11/GM.SYS: Device Handler for RT-11 and Share-11 operating system.
File structured and bootable device with 512 blocks device size. Performance
like DEC's VM.SYS.

GDC-11/GD.SYS: Device Handler for RT-11 operating system, write only device.
Required for operation under Share-11 or RT-11 XM monitor.

GDC-11/GR.SYS: Device Handler for RT-11 operating system, read only device
e.g. for hardcopy purpose.
Required for operation under Share-11 or RT-11 XM monitor.

GDC-11/FON: Various character sets with fixed and proportional spacing
defined within a 16*16 pixels matrix. Using a writing zoom factor
gives variable character size: 32*32 or 64*64 ...

GDC-11/HARDCOPY: Hardcopy software for various dot matrix printers
(DEC(r) LA-50, Apple(r) ImageWrite, Speedy 100-80)

GDC-11/GS: Software Interface.
A programming guide for the GDC-11: Source modules written in 
Modula-2, showing the command and
parameter sequence to initialize and generate all functions of the GDC-11
(for the programming of special applications, languages or operating

GDC-11/GDCLIB.MAC: A well documented 
GDC-11 graphic library written in MACRO. The GDCLIB
can be called from FORTRAN or MACRO programs.

All options made in West Germany.

VI._GDC-11/L Color-Lookup Table


(See also Newman & Sproull, Principles of Interactive
Computer Graphics, McGraw-Hill, 1979, pp279)

For image processing applications we have to associate
the digital information stored
for each pixel in the graphic memory 
with a grey-scale or color-intensity. Each pixel's intensity is
represented by 2, 4 or 8 bits of memory. One bit is
sufficient for text and simple graphics; 2 and 4 bits are useful
in applications that require the display of solid areas of gray or
color; and 8 bits are needed for high-quality shaded pictures.


The values stored in the graphics memory are treated as addresses
into a table of colors defined by their red, green and blue components.
Thus an 8-bit-per-pixel graphics memory could address a 256-color table.
Each of the color can be defined to high precision, thus providing
very accurate control over the colors displayed. The GDC-11/L
provides a programmable color map for maximum utility.
256 colors and intensity values can be selected
from a range of 2**24 colors.

GDC-11/L Specification:

- 22MHz max. pixel frequency for RGB output channels

- normal video signal providing synchronization on each channel (RGB)
  giving 0.9 Volt peak to peak.

- connects to GDC-11 by ribbon cable, supports on to four GDC-11,
 GDC-11 provides programmable video parameters 

- Lookup table 1K * 24 bit ECL RAM providing
 four mapping areas. One or two display areas on screen using
 one of the mapping areas each. Fast switching between mapping areas.

- 8 bit ECL DAC's integrated synchronization signal composition

- 75 Ohm RGB output signals

- two independent interrupt channels, 
four different programmable interrupt sources

- DIL switches  for interrupt and status address

- multilayer

- 5 Volt +/- 5% from Q-Bus at typ. 3.2 Amps

I/O-page Interface Description:

GDC-11/L Control and Status-Register LMCSR (774070):

Bit     Write                   Read

15      -                       interrupt B
14      interrupt enable B      interrupt enable B
13      -                       reserved
12      -                       reserved
11      -                       reserved
10      LRAM blue select        reserved
 9      LRAM green select       reserved
 8      LRAM red select         reserved

 7      -                       interrupt A
 6      interrupt enable A      interrupt enable A
 5      -                       VBlank
 4      Int A select 1          Int A select 1
 3      Int A select 0          Int A select 0
 2      reserved                reserved
 1      L address 9             L address 9     extended address for LMCR
 0      L address 8             L address 8     extended address for LMCR

Interrupt sources for channel A:

Int A select 0          Int A select 1          Source
        0                       0               HSync
        1                       0               VSync
        0                       1               VBlank
        1                       1               reserved for light pen

Interrupt sources for channel B are selected by jumpers.

Merge Register LMMR0, LMMR1 (774072, 774074) (used for GDC-11/8XC only):

Name    Address writing         reading
LMMR0   774072  data entry      data output (bit 0 .. 15)
LMMR1   774074  reserved        data output (bit 16 .. 31)

Lookup Memory Register LMCR (writing into 774076):

Writing into this register modifies the lookup RAM of the color specified
in LMCSR by bit 8 to bit 10. To change all values of one lookup table
requires 256 times an I/O-page access (e.g. MOV #X,@174076).
To change the values of the R,G,B lookup table requires 3*256 MOV's.
Note, that the lookup table has a capacity of 4*3*256. One lookup table for
the two possible GDC-11 display areas (selected by panning
using the Parameter RAM Load command PRAM (0..7). The start
coordinates (SAD1 and SAD2) and height (length in lines) of an area are
defined with the PRAM command), and one lookup table
for the two possible display areas, with the display partition word 
address (SAD1H and SAD2H) Bit1 = 1). Hence it is possible
to see 2*256 colors or intensities on the screen, and to switch
the this lookup table using the PRAM command
and loading 8 data bytes (PRAM0 to PRAM7) - within some μ-seconds -
without reloading the lookup tables (2*3*256 MOV's).

Bit 0..7:       Data for lookup RAM
Bit 8..15:      Address for data. 

The address is extended by the bit 0 and bit 1 of LMCSR.

For example:

        MOV #1000,@174070       ; select green lookup table
        MOV #61034,@174076      ; write the value 34 into
                                ; table at element 142 (octal)

This means, that a value of 142 in graphic memory gives a green
component with an intensity of 34 (octal) in the normal display area (0).

                            GDC-11 Raster Graphic

                       Allgemeine Hardware Information

1) DEC(r) LSI-Bus Spezifikation mit Interface Chip-Kit von DEC(r)

2) Vergoldete Buskontakte

3) Zwei bis 8-fache Speicherkapazität, verglichen mit Boards für andere Bus-Systeme

4) Fast Schottky Bauteile

5) 32 Bit Ausgang, bis 70 MHz Pixelfrequenz

6) Hochintegriert unter Verwendung von PALs

7) Schneller Datenaustausch durch Unterstützung des GDC-DMA-Modes

8) Verwendung als 'RAM-Disk' bzw. virtual Memory mit 512 Blöcken 
(256KByte) möglich

9) Externe Synchronisation möglich

10) Erweiterbar mit Color-Lookup-Table, Speichertiefe bis 8 Bit 
(256 Farbintensitäten pro Kanal (3 Kanäle: RGB), 256 Farben gleichzeitig
auf dem Schirm pro Display-Area (2 Areas, vertikal geteilt mit programmierbarer
Höhe), Lookup-Table (Länge 256 pro Area, gesamte Kapazität 1024) 
umschaltbar auf zweite Farbeinteilung)

11) Second-Source bei allen Bauteilen gewährleistet

13) Entwicklung und Fertigung in Deutschland 

14) Schaltplan auf vertraulicher Basis verfügbar

Oktober 1983

G. Dotzel

            SCHWARZ/WEISS MONITOR GDC-11/MHCM44 für GDC-11/1HR

                               Technische Daten

Bildschirmbaugruppe (Chassis mit Netzteil 110/220 V bei 50/60 Hz)

Für Ganzseiten-Bildschirm zum Einbau in Datensichtgeräte und
Textverarbeitungsanlagen höchster Anforderungen.

Signalleitungen ausgelegt für wahlweise Ansteuerung mit gemeinsamem
BAS-Signal oder mit separaten TTL-Signalen.

Sehr stabiler Chassis-Aufbau mit vielfältigen Befestigungsmöglichkeiten
und speziellen Aufnahmen zur Neigungs-Verstellung.

Sehr gute Geometrie und Bildstabilität durch moderne Schaltungstechnik.
Höchste Auflösung durch Einsatz einer speziell entwickelten
17" Monitor-Bildröhre mit integrierter Ablenkeinheit. Ergonomisch
optimales Bild durch neuentwickelte Leuchtstoffkombination für Darstellung
dunkler Zeichen auf hellem Grund.

Ruhiges, flimmerfreies Bild durch hohe Bildwechselfrequenz.

Exzellente Wiedergabe einer ganzen DIN A4-Seite durch Videoverstärker
grosser Bandbreite und entsprechend hohe horizontale Ablenkfrequenz
(1000 Zeilen-System als Standardausführung).

Konstruktion unter voller Berücksichtigung der DIN IEC- und VDE-Vorschriften
für Sicherheit und Störstrahlung.


Baugruppe: 322mm B, 390mm H, 368mm T (max).

nutzbarer Bildschirm: 270mm B, 346mm H, 413mm T (min).

Schirmneigung: in der Baugruppe 0 Grad, Aufnahmevorrichtung für Neigung.

Gewicht: 19 kg.

Bildröhre: Spezial-Monitorbildröhre höchster Auflösung mit 
110 Grad-Ablenkwinkel. Speziell angepasste Ablenkeinheit, auf optimale
Geometrie und Schärfe justiert und auf der Bildröhre fest montiert.
18 KV-Technik. Integrierter Implosionsschutz.

Leuchtschirm: Aluminium-hinterlegte Leuchtstoffschicht für höchste
Auflösung. Typ WD: Nachleuchtdauer mittelkurz, weiss.

Frontplatte: Grauglas mit ca. 48% Transmissionsgrad und polierter
Oberfläche. Typ C60: Schutzscheibe mit entspiegelter Oberfläche, ca. 60%

Zeichenfläche: 240mm B, 324mm H.

Auflösung, gemessen nach der Rastermethode bei 50μA Strahlstrom 
  typ. 2500 Linien.

Leistungsaufnahme typ. 130 VA, Netzkabel 2.5m, eingebauter leiser 

Option: Monitor komplett mit Gehäuse GDC-11/MG.

Jede Baugruppe wird vor Auslieferung 120 Stunden dauergeprüft.

Made in W. Germany by AEG-Telefunken.

              SCHWARZ/WEISS MONITOR GDC-11/Mh2r für GDC-11/1HR

                               Made in W. Germany

h2r-Baugruppe für höchste Anforderungen in der Textverarbeitung oder
in der Druck- und Satztechnik:

BAS-Eingang, 75Ohm, synchron Anteil: 30%, BNC Buchse.

Hochformat: Bandbreite (-3dB) min. 60 MHz.

Aufbau: mehrstufiger Verstärker mit Schwarzwertklemmung.

Ablenkfrequenz: 64 kHz hor., 60-80 Hz vert.

Dynamische Nachfokussierung.

Interne Einstellung von Grundhelligkeit, Schwarzwert, Bildlage,
Linearität, Fokussierung, Amplitude, Frequenz, Phasenlage.

Externe Einstellung: Helligkeit.

Zeilenlinearität: besser als 3%

änderung der Rastergrösse zwischen 10 und 100μA Strahlstrom: max 2%.

Schaltnetzteil: 110/220 Volt, 60VA.

Temperatur: Betrieb 0Grad C ... 50Grad C, Lagerung/Transport: -40Grad C ... 65Grad C.

Feuchte: max. 90% rel. Feuchte ohne Kondensation.

Sicherheit: VDE und Implosionsschutz-Anforderungen erfüllt.

Nach "Sicherheit von Datenverarbeitungs-Einrichtungen" 
konzipiert und gefertigt: DIN IEC (CO)14/VDE 0805.